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雅思阅读 | 实验研究类文章的基本脉络

作者: 2022-02-22 15:03 来源:杭州编辑
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各位屠鸭的小伙伴们,你们好呀。今天来给大家讲一下雅思阅读中经常出现的实验类文章的基本逻辑,帮助大家能更快读懂文章的大致结构便于做题。


废话不多说,先上实验研究类文章的大致过程:


1. Identify a research problem 辨别研究的问题

2. Find background information/review the literature 查找相关背景信息

3. Determine research question/purpose 确定研究课题

4. Collect data 收集实验数据

5. Analyse and interpret data 分析、解读数据

6. Report and evaluate research 评价研究


废话不多说,先上实验研究类文章的大致过程:  1. Identify a research problem 辨别研究的问题  2. Find background information/review the literature 查找相关背景信息  3. Determine research question/purpose 确定研究课题  4. Collect data 收集实验数据  5. Analyse and interpret data 分析、解读数据  6. Report and evaluate research 评价研究  图片 总的来说,这是一个循环的过程,实验结束后,会对研究进行评价,指出目前实验的限制和给出未来研究的方向。    比如11-4-1中的文章Research using twins  首段提出“nature and nurture”的话题- Identify a research problem  To biomedical researchers all over the world, twins offer a precious opportunity to untangle the influence of genes and the environment - of nature and nurture…    第2-第5段交代背景知识和过去的相关研究- Find background information/review the literature  其中,第4段首句:  The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase 'nature and nurture’).  第5段首句:  Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup.    第6段提出最近的研究课题”epigenetics” - Determine research question/purpose  According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play…    第7-9段讲解具体epigenetic实验的背景和实验结果collect and analyse data  第9段中:  Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up.    第10-12段分析了epigenetic实验的意义- Report and evaluate research  第11段中:  Twin studies have allowed us to be more reflective about what people are actually born with and what’s caused by experience.  第12段中:  Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further.    而另一篇11-2-3中的Neuroaesthetics神经美学也是总分总的实验类文章结构,但有所区别的就是文中回顾了多个实验。  首段提出话题-neuroaesthetics  An emerging discipline called neuroaesthetics is seeking to bring scientific objectivity to the study of art, and has already given us a better understanding of many masterpieces.    第2-7段提出各个不同的实验  第二段:  Could the same approach also shed light on abstract twentieth-century pieces, from Mondrian's geometrical blocks of colour, to Pollock's seemingly haphazard arrangements of splashed paint on canvas? (背景)Sceptics believe that people claim to like such works simply because they are famous. We certainly do have an inclination to follow the crowd. (大众观点)When asked to make simple perceptual decisions such as matching a shape to its rotated image (实验过程), for example, people often choose a definitively wrong answer if they see others doing the same(实验结果). It is easy to imagine that this mentality would have even more impact on a fuzzy concept like art appreciation, where there is no right or wrong answer(实验分析).    第8-9段对实验进行评价  而其他类似的实验研究类文章有:  5-1-2:Nature or nurture?  8-1-3:Telepathy  12-7-3:Music and emotions  14-4-1:The secret of staying young  15-2-3:Having a laugh    这类文章中常见的同义替换有:  investigate = study = research  data = figure = number = information = results  analyse = interpret    希望大家在读到类似实验类文章的时候,能够快速想到文章的整体逻辑,更快理解文章大意。


总的来说,这是一个循环的过程,实验结束后,会对研究进行评价,指出目前实验的限制和给出未来研究的方向。


比如11-4-1中的文章Research using twins

首段提出“nature and nurture”的话题- Identify a research problem

To biomedical researchers all over the world, twins offer a precious opportunity to untangle the influence of genes and the environment - of nature and nurture…


第2-第5段交代背景知识和过去的相关研究- Find background information/review the literature

其中,第4段首句:

The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase 'nature and nurture’).

第5段首句:

Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup.


第6段提出最近的研究课题”epigenetics” - Determine research question/purpose

According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play…


第7-9段讲解具体epigenetic实验的背景和实验结果collect and analyse data

第9段中:

Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up.


第10-12段分析了epigenetic实验的意义- Report and evaluate research

第11段中:

Twin studies have allowed us to be more reflective about what people are actually born with and what’s caused by experience.

第12段中:

Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further.


而另一篇11-2-3中的Neuroaesthetics神经美学也是总分总的实验类文章结构,但有所区别的就是文中回顾了多个实验。

首段提出话题-neuroaesthetics

An emerging discipline called neuroaesthetics is seeking to bring scientific objectivity to the study of art, and has already given us a better understanding of many masterpieces.


第2-7段提出各个不同的实验

第二段:

Could the same approach also shed light on abstract twentieth-century pieces, from Mondrian's geometrical blocks of colour, to Pollock's seemingly haphazard arrangements of splashed paint on canvas? (背景)Sceptics believe that people claim to like such works simply because they are famous. We certainly do have an inclination to follow the crowd. (大众观点)When asked to make simple perceptual decisions such as matching a shape to its rotated image (实验过程), for example, people often choose a definitively wrong answer if they see others doing the same(实验结果). It is easy to imagine that this mentality would have even more impact on a fuzzy concept like art appreciation, where there is no right or wrong answer(实验分析).


第8-9段对实验进行评价

而其他类似的实验研究类文章有:

5-1-2:Nature or nurture?

8-1-3:Telepathy

12-7-3:Music and emotions

14-4-1:The secret of staying young

15-2-3:Having a laugh


这类文章中常见的同义替换有:

investigate = study = research

data = figure = number = information = results

analyse = interpret


希望大家在读到类似实验类文章的时候,能够快速想到文章的整体逻辑,更快理解文章大意。

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