举例：exemplify ／provide example
反驳、质疑：refute／argue against／challenge／question／cast doubt on
Why does the author mention …?
The author discusses … in paragraph … in order to…
The author uses … as an example of …in order to…
In mentioning …, the author is making which of the following points?
What is the main purpose of paragraph 7?
What is the structure of paragraph 2?
How is paragraph 4 related to other parts of the passage?
1.Why does the author mention “a nut”, “a peach”, and “a cherry”?
A.To indicate that some seeds are less likely to survive than others
B.To point out that many angiosperms can be eaten
C.To provide examples of blooming plants
D.To illustrate the variety of coverings among angiosperm seeds
One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard–like the shell of a nut–for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.
解析：提到的这句话中有个“Some of these coats”，在这里coats 和前句话中的covering 是同义词，前面一句话是论点，说的是在被子植物种，种子是被包裹的，然后提到的这句话说有的coats 硬有的软和诱人，很明显是针对包裹物而言的，看出来包裹物是多样的，所以选d
2.What is the purpose of the statement, “Whereas in 1810 only a seventh of the American people lived west of the Appalachian Mountains, by 1840 more than a third lived there”?
A.To illustrate that generally population shifts occur rapidly
B.To correct a mistaken impression of American agriculture from 1810 to 1840
C.To emphasize the range and speed with which the westward migration occurred
D.To demonstrated how attractive the Appalachian Mountains were to Americans
Paragraph 1: The story of the westward movement of population in the United States is, in the main, the story of the expansion of American agriculture—of the development of new areas for the raising of livestock and the cultivation of wheat, corn, tobacco, and cotton. After 1815 improved transportation enabled more and more western farmers to escape a self-sufficient way of life and enter a national market economy. During periods when commodity prices were high, the rate of westward migration increased spectacularly. "Old America seemed to be breaking up and moving westward," observed an English visitor in 1817, during the first great wave of migration. Emigration to the West reached a peak in the 1830's. Whereas in 1810 only a seventh of the American people lived west of the Appalachian Mountains, by 1840 more than a third lived there.
3.Why does the author mention that “English and Dutch ships carrying rye from the Baltic states reached Spain and Portugal”?
A.To suggest that England and the Netherlands were the two most important trading nations in seventeenth-century Europe
B.To suggest how extensive trading relations were
C.To contrast the importance of agricultural products with manufactured products
D.To argue that shipping introduced a range of new products
Paragraph 5: More extended trading networks also helped develop Europe's economy in this period. English and Dutch ships carrying rye from the Baltic states reached Spain and Portugal. Population growth generated an expansion of small-scale manufacturing, particularly of handicrafts, textiles, and metal production in England, Flanders, parts of northern Italy, the southwestern German states, and parts of Spain. Only iron smelting and mining required marshaling a significant amount of capital (wealth invested to create more wealth).
◆因果：hence， so, thus, therefore，consequently，because，for…
◆并列：also，other+名词，as well, too，again
◆类比：just as A, so B 正如A一样，B也是这样
为什么要提到A， 说明B 也是这样
4.The author mentions “343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead” in order to
A.describe the kinds of tasks soldiers were required to perform as punishment for disloyalty or misdeeds
B.illustrate some of the duties assigned to soldiers to keep them busy and well-behaved when not involved in military campaigns
C.provide evidence that Roman soldiers had a negative effect on the local area by performing jobs that had been performed by native workers
D.argue that the soldiers would have been better employed in the construction of infrastructure such as roads
Paragraph 2: Economic exchange was clearly very important as the Roman army brought with it very substantial spending power. Locally a fort had two kinds of impact. Its large population needed food and other supplies. Some of these were certainly brought from long distances, but demands were inevitably placed on the local area. Although goods could be requisitioned, they were usually paid for, and this probably stimulated changes in the local economy. When not campaigning, soldiers needed to be occupied; otherwise they represented a potentially dangerous source of friction and disloyalty. Hence a writing tablet dated 25 April tells of 343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead. Such activities had a major effect on the local area, in particular with the construction of infrastructure such as roads, which improved access to remote areas.
5.Why does the author state that "Earth had experienced previous periods of climatic change, and yet agriculture had not been developed"?
A.To suggest that climate change had occurred long before the development of agriculture
B.To argue that climate change does not properly explain why agriculture developed
C.To challenge the assumption that agriculture developed only in some parts of the world.
D.To question the claim that climate change occurred at the time when agriculture developed
Paragraph 4: It would appear that the instability of the climatic conditions led populations that had originally been nomadic to settle down and develop a sedentary style of life, which led in turn to population growth and to the need to increase the amount of food available. Farming originated in these conditions. Later on, it became very difficult to change because of the significant expansion of these populations. It could be argued, however, that these conditions are not sufficient to explain the origins of agriculture. Earth had experienced previous periods of climatic change, and yet agriculture had not been developed.
解析：阴影句子的意思是地球之前也经历过气候变化，然而农业也没有发展，它对应的论点是前一句，但是前面一句提到“these conditions”，那需要继续往前找these conditions 到底是哪些情况，前面的意思是说气候不稳定导致人定居发展农业，后面的however 反驳了这个观点，即认为气候变化并没有合理解释为什么农业发展，所以此题答案是b