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托福阅读-必拿分插入题之指代逻辑

作者: 2020-07-22 17:51 来源:杭州编辑
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    今天小编给大家分享的是新航道杜老师整理的托福阅读必拿分插入题之指代逻辑,希望能够帮助大家取得托福高分。

一、我们先来看一下托福阅读中插入题的出题形式

解析:左边最上面是要求,最下面是插入句

右边段落中有4个黑色实体方块,相当于是A,B,C,D 4个选项看一下插入句放在哪个位置最合适

插入题是阅读中必出的一道题,它的位置总是固定的,在每篇文章的倒数第二题。很多同学会在这道题目上栽跟头或者花费过长的时间,这其中的一个原因可能是做到此题的时候时间不太够了,还有最后一道题没有做,心里会有点焦虑,其实这道题本身并不是很难,并且有很强的做题技巧。插入题插入句中经常出现代词,那我们今天就着重讲一下指代逻辑




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♬..♩~ ♫. ♪
♫. ♪ ~ ♬..♩

二、插入句:在插入句中我们经常会遇到代词或者代词+名词或者the +名词,一般会代指前面出现过的名词,所以我们要去前面找,但是要注意的是这个代词和原文中的词并不一定是同一个词,这时候我们要找更概括性的名词或者这个名词的近义词,比如插入句中出现findings,前文中可能是它的近义词discovery,插入句中出现了表示动物叫声的call,前文中可能会提到cry。

下面是补充的一些插入句中常出现的代词

1、人称代词(Personal Pronouns) :I, you, he, she, they, them,him, her等

2、物主代词:my, his ,her, their,hers 等

3、指示代词:this, that, it, these, those 等


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三、接下来我们来看例子

例题1

插入句:The findings of these geologists inspired others to examine the rock and fossil records in different parts of the world.

Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the fossils they contained, he could also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear in more ancient sediments, while others begin to be seen as the strata become more recent. █By following the fossils, Smith was able to put all the strata of England's earth into relative temporal sequence. █About the same time, Georges Cuvier made the same discovery while studying the rocks around Paris. █Soon it was realized that this principle of faunal (animal) succession was valid not only in England or France but virtually everywhere. █It was actually a principle of floral succession as well, because plants showed the same transformation through time as did fauna. Limestone may be found in the Cambrian or—300 million years later—in the Jurassic strata, but a trilobite—the ubiquitous marine arthropod that had its birth in the Cambrian—will never be found in Jurassic strata, nor a dinosaur in the Cambrian.

解析:根据我们上面讲的指代逻辑,插入句中出现了the findings,these geologists(地质学家),说明前面得出现两个或者两个以上的地质学家,并且会提到这些地质学家的发现。根据这些点,我们首先知道不应该放在第一个空和第二个空,因为这两个空前面只有Smith 这一个地质学家,第二个空后面出现了第二个地质学Georges Cuvier , 并且说到Georges Cuvier made the same discovery,暂定第三个空是合适的,第四个空前一句讲的是动物演替的原则,后一句讲的是也是植物演替的原则,可以看出来两句之间衔接比较紧密,那我们就不能放在第四个空,综合来看应该放在第三个空。



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♬..♩~ ♫. ♪
♫. ♪ ~ ♬..♩

例题2

插入句:The cheeping provides important information to the parent, but it could also attract the attention of others

Many signals that animals make seem to impose on the signalers costs that are overly damaging. ■A classic example is noisy begging by nestling songbirds when a parent returns to the nest with food. ■These loud cheeps and peeps might give the location of the nest away to a listening hawk or raccoon, resulting in the death of the defenseless nestlings. ■In fact, when tapes of begging tree swallows were played at an artificial swallow nest containing an egg, the egg in that “noisy” nest was taken or destroyed by predators before the egg in a nearby quiet nest in 29 of 37 trials. ■

解析:插入句中出现了the cheeping, the parent,那前面应该会提到叫声和父/母,插入句的意思是这些叫声会给父母提供重要的信息,但是也会吸引其他(动物)的注意力。我们可以看到原文中的第二句话出现了cheeping 的近义词begging和a parent, 第三句话说到把鸟巢的位置暴露给鹰或者浣熊,放在第二个空正好起到承上启下的作用,能够把两句话紧密衔接起来,所以答案就是第二个空。


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例题3

插入句:During this period, Sweden had the highest rate of growth of output per capita of any country in Europe, and Denmark was second.

While some European countries, such as England and Germany, began to industrialize in the eighteenth century, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden developed later. ■ All four of these countries lagged considerably behind in the early nineteenth century. ■ However, they industrialized rapidly in the second half of the century, especially in the last two or three decades. ■ In view of their later start and their lack of coal—undoubtedly the main reason they were not among the early industrializers—it is important to understand the sources of their success. ■ 

解析:插入句中出现了this period,说明前面会出现一个时间段,这句话整体想说的是瑞典发展快,段落中的第一句讲的是瑞典发展慢,第二句讲的是19世纪早期这些国家还是落后,第三句话出现了表示转折的However, 讲到in the last two or three decades 最后的二三十年快速工业化,这里出现了时间段,最后一句话没有提到时间段,所以很明显应该放在第三个空。


总结:插入题中的指代逻辑整体不难,先要把插入句的意思看懂,然后关注句中的一些指代词,再回到原文中找。以上就是对于指代逻辑的总结,大家可以用上以上的技巧,在考试中可以快速地做对这种题目!

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